Gynaecological Cancer

Gynecological cancers include ovarian, uterine, cervical, vulvar, and vaginal cancers.

Risk Factors

Use of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), hormone replacement therapy, family history of breast/ ovarian cancer, HPV infection, early menarche and late menopause and nulliparity are known risk factors.  


Symptoms include post-menopausal bleeding, menorrhagia, pelvic pain, loss of appetite, abdominal bloating with discomfort, and foul-smelling vaginal discharge. 


The first diagnostic test done is imaging which includes a CT scan, MRI scan, or ultrasound. Tumor markers like CA-125 and CEA are done in addition to imaging. Biopsies of pelvic mass and ascitic fluid for cytology need to be done to diagnose Cancer. Screening investigations include Ultrasound (abdomen+Pelvis) and Pap Smear.


Depending on the stage of cancer, the patient is treated with Surgical intervention +/- HIPEC (hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy), Chemotherapy, Targeted Therapy, or Radiation Therapy. 

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